‘We are facing the challenge to take a new approach'

Actually, everything I am going to say can probably be summarised in these two words: uncertainty and change. In stable contexts, planning could be considered the same as extrapolating. Indeed, if the determining parameters of the basic matrix do not move, or they move very little, planning simply consists in foreseeing or inducing the behaviour of the parameters that do move. However, it is another matter when the system becomes complex, uncertain or it changes. Then all the parameters to be considered start to move and the planning becomes difficult, among other reasons because it is practically impossible to know what the system will be like in one, two or three years.

Therefore, it could be an act of extreme arrogance —one of the deadly sins of humanity— to determine the behaviour of something we know nothing about. I think this is exactly what is happening now, as we effectively have a very complex, uncertain and changing system.